What is Coffee Roasting & Different Types of Roasts Explained

Roasting Coffee

Roasting is a heat process that turns coffee into the fragrant, dark brown beans with which is most familiar to us. The beans were stored green before being roasted. In this state they can be kept without loss of quality or taste. Once roasted, however, they should be used as quickly as possible before the fresh roast flavour begins to diminish.

Roasting is a technical skill which approaches an art form.  It takes years of training to become an expert roaster with the ability to 'read' the beans and make decisions with split second timing. The difference between perfectly roasted coffee and a ruined batch can be a matter of seconds.

Roasting brings out the aroma and flavour that is locked inside the green coffee beans.  A green bean has none of the characteristics of a roasted bean.  It is soft and spongy to the bite and smells green, almost 'grassy.'  Roasting causes numerous chemical changes to take place as the beans are rapidly brought to very high temperatures. When they reach the peak of perfection, they are quickly cooled to stop the process. Roasted beans smell like coffee, and weigh less because the moisture has been roasted out. They are crunchy to the bite, ready to be ground and brewed.

In general, roasts fall into one of four colour categories—light, medium, medium-dark or dark.  The perfect roast is a subjective choice that is sometimes determined by personal or national preference or geographic location

 

The Roasts

Within the four colour categories, you are likely to find common roasts as listed below. There can be a world of difference between roasts! At Redber we focus on medium, medium-dark and mid-range ‘dark’. Dark can stretch to extremes.

Light Roasts

Light brown in colour. This roast is generally preferred for milder coffee varieties. There will be no oil on the surface of these beans, because they are not roasted long enough for the oils to break through to the surface

  • Roast 2
  • Light City
  • Half City
  • Cinnamon
  • New England

Medium Roasts

Medium brown in colour with a stronger flavour,  and a non-oily surface. This roast is often referred to as the American roast because it is generally preferred in the United States.

  • Roast 3
  • City
  • American
  • Breakfast

Medium—Dark Roasts

Rich, dark colour with some oil on the surface and with a slight bittersweet aftertaste

  • Roast 4
  • FullCity

Dark Roasts

Shiny black beans with an oily surface and a pronounced bitterness. The darker the roast, the less acidity will be found in the coffee beverage.  Dark roast coffees run from slightly dark to charred and the names are often used interchangeably which can be very confusing.  Be sure to check your beans before you buy them!

  • Roast 5 and 6
  • French
  • Continental
  • New Orleans
  • European
  • Espresso
  • Viennese
  • Italian

 

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